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TCP/IP networking primer - Please Read and Add Questions and Comments

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Jerome Malsack:

--- Quote from: Chris Johnson [UK] on January 22, 2013, 05:44:03 pm ---2) IP addresses are owned, like internet domains. However, back in the day, the powers that be decided they would reserve some IP addresses for private use. There are 4 such IP address blocks:
- 10.x.x.x
- 169.254.x.x
- 172.16.x.x
- 192.168.x.x
All other addresses are either reserved for special purposes, or owned by companies and used on the internet.
--- End quote ---

These addresses are not routed onto the internet and they should be translated by the router to an address that can be.  With IPV6 there will be no equivalent and all addresses will be addressable on the internet. 

Scott Wagner:
In the audio world, it's best to keep networks as simple as possible.  While the subnet classes have been deprecated thanks to variable length subnet masking, they are still useful in that they are much easier for a novice to understand.  24 bit (or class C 255.255.255.0) subnet masks are probably the best choice for audio networks, since it is extremely rare to need more than 254 unique addresses (in each subnet) in an audio environment.  Keep in mind that the first address in a subnet (192.168.1.0 in a class C subnet for example) is the network itself, and the last address in a subnet (192.168.1.255 in a class C subnet) is the broadcast address (ie: all devices on that subnet will accept the packet).  That would leave a range of addresses available (192.168.1.[1-254]) for addressing each device.

Given the constraint that class C subnet masking will be used, the best choice for addressing would be to use the 192.168.[0-255].[1-254] private address space.  The first two octets (since they are 8 bits in length) are defined by RFC1918 as a private 16 bit (class B) address space that is easily configurable into 256 class C subnets.  The third octet (192.168.x) would define the network, and the fourth octet (192.168.[0-255].x) defines each device.  Traditionally, routers are assigned addresses at the beginning or end of the address space (192.168.1.1 or 192.168.1.254 for example), but there are no requirements to do so other than tradition.

To summarize the TCP/IP Networking for Audio Dummies:
1.  Use the 192.168.[0-255].[1-254] address space
2.  Use 255.255.255.0 for all subnet masks
3.  Pick a number for the third octet to define your network (192.168.1 is a standard choice).
4.  Pick a number for the fourth octete to define each device (192.168.1.[1-254]).
5.  The "default gateway address" is whatever address you've assigned to your router (or 0.0.0.0 if you don't have a router).
6.  Remember that most audio networks are switched (instead of routed), since it's best to isolate production networks from the rest of the world.
7.  When deploying wireless, always enable the security to keep the punters out of your production network.

If you stick to these simple constraints, anyone can easily configure networks without ever having to understand binary (base2) mathmatics.

Tim Padrick:

--- Quote from: Chris Johnson [UK --- ss, you can set your IP address to an address in the same range (say 192.168.1.100) and ping 192.168.1.255. Then any device with an IP address that is 192.168.x.x will respond, allowing you to see the addresses of other devices on the network.

Equally, if you have no idea what the address is, you can connect your computer to the same LAN, and give it any IP address and then ping the address 224.0.0.1 and any device on the LAN with any address will respond.

--- End quote ---

192.168.1.255 works on my network.  224.0.0.1 does not.

Scott Wagner:
In another discussion someone mentioned using MAC Filtering for alternative or additional security.  A MAC address is an unique identifier assigned by the manufacturer to each network device.  Enabling MAC Filtering would block anything with the exception of that specific device.  This is a good step to keep unwanted devices off of your network; however, if you replace that device (even with the exact same model) you will have to change your filtering rules since the new device will have a different MAC address.

Imagine a simple network consisting of a digital mixer, router (or WAP), and a single computer.  If MAC Filtering were enabled and only these three devices were added to the MAC filtering allow list, you could be in for some trouble.  If you computer dies and you have to replace it, now you can't get into the router (or WAP) to change the MAC Filtering rules.  At that point it's time for a hard reset of the router (or WAP) and starting over with the configuration from scratch.  I recommend having an additional computer allowed on your MAC list to avoid this situation.  We all know that computers never die, right?

David Sturzenbecher:
This may be a new thread but...

Are there any best practices for adding wireless to systems with digital snakes. 

I would really like to know the best way to add a wireless router to my I-tech System without taking the Cobranet down...

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